Mastering the rules of Noon Sakinah and Tanween is essential for anyone aspiring to excel in Tajweed. These two elements serve as the foundation of proper pronunciation and are often considered the cornerstones of Tajweed. Yet, their complexities can leave learners confused because they do not have a proper understanding of the rules of noon sakinah.
In this article, we will learn what are the 4 rules of Tajweed. Once you understand the differences and contexts of these rules, you’ll confidently navigate the intricacies of Tajweed and experience a deeper connection with Quran reading rules.
Understanding the Basics and Differences of
What is Noon Sakinah
Noon Saakinah refers to a particular rule in Arabic and Tajweed (Quran reciting rules). It entails pronouncing the letter Noon () when preceded by the diacritic symbol Sukoon ().
What is Tanween
Tanween’s alteration to the term is known as “nunation.” Under certain conditions, Tanween signs add a “n” sound to the end of a word. Tanween is when there are two lines above the word that are double Fatha (Nasb), two lines below the word that are double Kasra (Jar), and Dhamma (Raf). Tanween is read if it is connected to the following letter; if it is halted on Tanween, it is not read.
4 Rules of Noon Sakinah and Tanween
Now that you’ve understood what they are and how they differ, it’s time to learn about the four rules of Noon Sakinah and Tanween.
Izhar refers to the rule of pronouncing Noon Sakinah and Tanween clearly when followed by certain letters. It means you say the Noon Sakinah or Tanween distinctly, emphasizing its short vowel sound (kasrah, fathah, or dammah) without merging it with the following letter.
This rule is important for precise Quranic recitation, ensuring that these diacritic marks are pronounced distinctly.
Example 1 – Surah Al-Fatiha (سورة الفاتحة), Ayah 1
وَالْقُرْآنِ الْمَجِيدِ (wa-al-qur’āni al-majīd)
In this verse, the Tanween at the end of “القرآنِ” is pronounced clearly (Izhar) with a short vowel sound, “i.” The rule of Izhar is applied here because “Tanween” is followed by the letter “الم” (alif lam), which is one of the letters of Izhar. Therefore, you pronounce the Tanween distinctly with its short vowel sound before moving on to the next letter, “الم.”
Example 2 – Surah Al-Ikhlas (سورة الإخلاص), Ayah 4
لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ (lam yalid walam yūlad)
Here, the Noon Sakinah in “يَلِدْ” and “يُولَدْ” is pronounced clearly (Izhar) with a short vowel sound, “i.” The rule of Izhar is applied here because “Noon Sakinah” is followed by the letter “ي” (ya), which is one of the letters of Izhar. Hence, you pronounce the Noon Sakinah distinctly with its short vowel sound before transitioning to the letter “ي.”
Idgham refers to the rule of merging the sound of Noon Sakinah or Tanween into the following letter, resulting in a brief and subtle nasalization of sound. This assimilation occurs when Noon Sakinah or Tanween is followed by one of the letters of Idgham (الغنا), which includes غ (ghayn), ن (nūn), م (mīm), و (wāw), and ي (yā).
In simpler terms, instead of pronouncing Noon Sakinah or Tanween distinctly, you blend its sound into the subsequent letter, creating a smooth transition. This rule adds fluidity and rhythm to Quranic recitation.
Example 1 – Surah Al-Kawthar (سورة الكوثر), Ayah 2
فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَانْحَرْ (faṣalli lirabbika wanḥar)
In this verse, the Tanween at the end of “لِرَبِّكَ” is assimilated (Idgham) into the following letter, which is the letter “ل” (lam). When you recite it, you blend the sound of the Tanween into the “ل” without emphasizing the short vowel sound. This rule enhances the flow of the recitation and maintains the rhythm.
Example 2 – Surah Al-Falaq (سورة الفلق), Ayah 2
مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ (min sharrimā khalaq)
In this verse, the Tanween at the end of “خَلَقَ” is also assimilated (Idgham) into the following letter, which is the letter “م” (mīm). When reciting it, you merge the sound of the Tanween into the “م” without pronouncing it distinctly. This assimilation ensures a smooth recitation, enhancing the overall beauty of the Quran.
Iqlab is a rule in Tajweed that involves changing the pronunciation of Noon Sakinah (نْ) to a Meem (مْ) when it is followed by the letter “ب” (ba) with a sukun (no vowel). In simple terms, when you encounter Noon Sakinah (نْ) followed by “ب” with no vowel, you convert the “نْ” into “مْ.” This rule ensures a smooth and fluent recitation, preventing awkward pauses and maintaining the flow of the Quranic verses.
Example 1 – Surah Al-Ikhlas (سورة الإخلاص), Ayah 3
لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ (lam yalid walam yūlad)
In this verse, you’ll notice the Iqlab rule in action in the word “يَلِدْ,” where the Noon Sakinah (نْ) followed by “ب” (ba) with a sukun (no vowel) changes into “مْ.” So, you pronounce it as “يَلِمْ” instead of “يَلِدْ.” This rule ensures a smooth and uninterrupted recitation.
Example 2 – Surah Al-Falaq (سورة الفلق), Ayah 3
وَمِن شَرِّ حَاسِدٍ إِذَا حَسَدَ (wamin sharri ḥāsidin idha ḥasada)
In this verse, the Iqlab rule is applied in the word “إِذَا حَسَدَ.” Here, the Noon Sakinah (نْ) followed by “ب” (ba) with a sukun (no vowel) changes into “مْ,” making it “إِذَا حَسَمَ” instead of “إِذَا حَسَدَ.” This rule maintains the fluency of recitation and the verse’s rhythmic flow.
Ikhfa refers to the rule in Tajweed where you pronounce Noon Sakinah (نْ) or Tanween with a slight nasalization and a soft, concealed sound when they are followed by one of the letters of Ikhfa (الجهر), which includes ج (jīm), ح (ḥā), خ (khā), ع (ʿayn), غ (ghayn), and ق (qāf).
Instead of pronouncing Noon Sakinah or Tanween distinctly, you soften the sound, almost as if whispering. This rule adds a subtle grace to the Quranic recitation, creating a harmonious flow.
Example 1 – Surah Al-Baqarah (سورة البقرة), Ayah 11
قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ (qālū innamā naḥnu muṣliḥūn)
In this verse, the Ikhfa rule is applied in the word “نَحْنُ.” Here, the Tanween on “نَحْنُ” is pronounced softly and concealed due to the presence of the letter “ن” (nūn) in the word, which is one of the letters of Ikhfa. So, you pronounce it as “نَحْمُ” with a subtle, concealed sound.
Example 2 – Surah Al-Qalam (سورة القلم), Ayah 1
ن وَالْقَلَمِ وَمَا يَسْطُرُونَ (Nū wal-qalamī wa mā yasṭurūn)
In this verse, the Ikhfa rule is applied in the word “يَسْطُرُونَ.” The presence of the letter “س” (sīn) in the word triggers Ikhfa. As a result, you softly pronounce it as “يَسْطُرُونَ” with a concealed sound. This subtle change in pronunciation adds grace and fluency to the recitation, contributing to the verse’s rhythmic flow.
Join the Best Online Tajweed Course to Master Noon Sakinah and Tanween
One of the most effective and convenient ways to learn Tajweed rules is by enrolling in online Tajweed classes. These courses offer the advantage of learning from the comfort of your home, eliminating the need for commuting or fixed schedules.
With online Tajweed courses, you can receive personalized, 1-on-1 instruction from experienced teachers specializing in Quranic recitation. This individualized attention ensures that you thoroughly grasp Noon Sakinah and Tanween’s nuances. Online Tajweed courses are designed to provide an interactive and engaging learning experience.
We trust that these fundamental rules of Noon Sakinah and Tanween are now clear to you, along with their distinct applications. To embark on a journey towards mastering Tajweed and achieving a profound connection with the Quran, we encourage you to take the next step: enroll in an advanced Tajweed course.
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